Adventitious Bud – A vegetative bud that develops along the root of a bramble plant and that will grow into a primocane.

Aggregate Fruit – A type of fruit that develops from a single flower, but which consists of many smaller drupelets that fuse and ripen together.

Air Shear – Cutting with air; used to define a spray nozzle that uses air to break up the spray into the desired pattern and droplet size.

Apical Meristem – A group of cells at the growing point of roots and shoots from which all vegetative or reproductive growth originates.

Aroma Volatiles – Fragrant chemicals in fruit that quickly vaporize when exposed to air.

Axillary Bud – A bud which develops in the axil of a leaf, the point where the leaf attaches to the shoot.

Backcross – A cross between a parent and one of its offspring.

Biennial – A plant that requires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle; vegetative growth occurs the first year, reproductive growth occurs the second year, and then the plant dies.

Calyx Lobe – The free, unfused, projecting parts of the base of a flower below the petals.

Canopy – The leaf surface on a plant.

Certified Plant Stock – Plants, from a nursery, which have been visually inspected by a state representative and found to be free of virus and other disease symptoms.

Crown Bud – A vegetative bud that originates from just below the base of a bramble plant and which will develop into a primocane.

Cultivar – A "cultivated variety"; an entity of commercial importance, which is given a name to distinguish it from other, genetically different plants.

Cultural Control – The use of production practices that are typically used to improve plant growth and yield, to control pests as well.

Differentiation – The physiological and morphological changes that occur in cells, tissues, or organs during development and maturation.

Double-Cropping – Fruiting a primocane-fruiting raspberry in fall and again in summer, rather than allowing canes to fruit only once in the fall before removing all canes.

Drupelet – The small sections of a raspberry or blackberry fruit, each containing a seed.

Entomology – The study of insects.

Evapotranspiration – The total water lost through evaporation from the soil surface and from transpiration through the plant.

Fall-Fruiting – A raspberry which forms fruit on the tops of first-year vegetative primocanes near the end of the growing season; also known as primocane-fruiting.

Fibrous Root – A type of root system characterized by many branches of fine roots.

Floricane – The second-year cane which overwintered and will fruit and die in the current year.

Floricane-Fruiting – A raspberry which forms fruit only on second-year canes in late spring or summer; the same as summer-fruiting.

Germplasm – A collection of genetically diverse plants, including wild material, which can be used to improve cultivated plants through breeding.

Green Manure Crop – A crop that will be incorporated into the soil for improving soil fertility and tilth.

Hardiness – The ability of a plant to withstand cold temperatures.

Leather Bud – Buds at the base of a cane, often underground, which have the capacity to grow into a primocane.

Node – The point of attachment of buds or laterals to the main cane.

Oviposition – The laying of an egg by an insect.

Pathology – The study of diseases and the organisms that cause them.

Perennial – A plant or plant part that lives for more than two years.

pH – A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil, ranging from 0 to 14; a low pH indicates acidic soil, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a high pH indicates an alkaline soil.

Photosynthesis – The process in a plant of making sugars for growth and respiration from the raw products of water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight.

Phytotoxicity – The ability of a chemical substance to cause harm to a plant, often used to characterize the effect of a herbicide on crops.

Pistil – The female reproductive organ of a flower from which the fruit will ultimately develop.

Pollination – The act of placing pollen from the male reproductive organ onto the female reproductive organ of a flower, often carried out by bees or wind.

Primocane – The first-year cane of a raspberry or blackberry.

Primocane-Fruiting – A type of raspberry that forms fruit on the tops of first-year canes near the end of the growing season; the same as fall-fruiting.

Recommended Daily Allowance – Revised estimates of the amounts of vitamins and minerals that should be contained in the daily diet to ensure good health in human adults.

Recommended Dietary Allowance – Original estimates of vitamin and mineral needs in human adults to ensure good health.

Respiration – The process of converting sugars into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Often, the energy is in the form of heat.

Shoot Bud – A bud on the above ground portion of a plant.

Stamen – The male part of a flower; it produces pollen.

Stomata – Pores on the bottom of a leaf through which carbon dioxide enters the plant and water vapor exits.

Sucker Shoot – A young, vegetative cane originating from an adventitious bud on the root.

Summer-Fruiting – A raspberry or blackberry which forms fruit only on second-year canes in late spring or summer; also known as floricane-fruiting.

Tip-Layering – A method of propagation of black raspberries in which the ends of canes are buried in the soil so that new plants will arise from them.

Tipping – The process of removing the tops of primocanes for the purpose of stimulating lateral branching; sometimes called pinching.

Tissue Culture – A method of propagation in which whole plants are obtained from meristematic tissue in indoor facilities.

Topping – The removal of the top portion of cane after it has overwintered.

Torus – The center of a fruit to which the drupelets attach; also called the receptacle.

Transpiration – The process of water exiting the plant through the stomata.